Emergent Pediatric Radiology Studies - Ormazabal

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Shoulder Arthrography
Hip Injections
Gadolinium Arthrography Mixture
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16 Slice CTA Head & Neck
AAST Trauma Grading
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Fetal Vulnerabilities
Intussusception Reduction
Pediatric Emergencies Reference
Neck Lymph Node Stations
Incidental Pulmonary Nodule on CT
Adrenal Adenoma CT
Appendicitis in Pregnancy MR
Iodinated Contrast
Contrast Information Potpourri - UW
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Intussusception Reduction

Before getting started, must have:

In the room, must have:

Can use air or water soluble contrast—peds rads usually start with air, unless abd film shows so much air that it may be hard to tell

If using water soluble contrast, can use Cystoconray or Hypaque

The seal is the name of the game—use a Foley catheter that is big enough, so it will give you the best seal (usually 24-28 French in kids >12 months)

Inflate balloon under fluoro, then pull to snug and tape well with foam tape

Inflate air until you confidently see air reflux into the small bowel (it’s “bubbly”)

Sustained pressure shouldn’t be higher than 120 mmHg

Give it 3 tries to try and reduce—in general, if making progress, keep going

If using water soluble contrast, elevate bag approximately 3 feet above table, to get a good pressure head

Image capture multiple spots as you go—it can be helpful if trying to convince yourself that you are in fact in the small bowel to go back and look at the spots as you progress.

Consent for the procedure should include risk of perforation necessitating surgery and risk of being unable to reduce intussusception thus necessitating surgery.

Pediatric upper GI

The only true emergent indication is rule out malrotation, or bilious emesis, which implies malrotation with midgut volvulus.

Place baby on octostop.

I do all emergent studies using a feeding tube in the stomach as it gives you more control and usually speeds things up such as if the stomach isn’t emptying which may be the case with midgut volvulus or the incidental pyloric stenosis ( I use air to push contrast out of the stomach with child right decub position), and if study is positive, it is desirable to decompress the stomach as much as possible.

Inject water soluble contrast (Omnipaque 300 or similar) in the left side down position—after fundus of stomach fills, turn baby right side down, in order to empty the stomach. When you see contrast in the duodenal bulb/second portion of the duodenum, turn baby to supine position and watch the contrast cross over the midline to the ligament of Treitz.

Key image is documenting the position of the ligament of Treitz, which is to the left of the spine and at the level of the duodenal bulb in normal kids. If the ligament is not in correct position, then there is malrotation. If there is a tight twist in the duodenum, or frank obstruction, then there is midgut volvulus (it can be difficult to see the “corkscrew” of the volvulized small bowel). This is a true surgical emergency and needs to be reduced in the OR immediately.

Hip ultrasound

Indication: rule out septic hip

Technique: Single longitudinal (parasagittal) image of each hip (both the symptomatic and asymptomatic side) from the anterior position. Use linear array transducer. If there is ANY fluid in the joint, then the hip must be tapped. This is an orthopedic emergency, as a septic joint can rapidly destroy cartilage.





Pediatric contrast enemas

Aside from r/o intussuseption, most pediatric enemas can be deferred until morning